The NYMAS Newsletter

Winter 1999

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A Publication of

The New York Military Affairs Symposium

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© 1999 NYMAS & The Authors

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Feature Review

Lee's Miserables: Life in the Army of Northern Virginia From the Wilderness to Appomattox

By J. Tracey Power

 

Much has been made of the "new military history" that has become somewhat popular in the past few years. Unlike many other works of the "new military history" which have been found somewhat wanting, Lee’s Miserables certainly shows the promise in this approach. Power's work is really a social history of the Army of Northern Virginia during the last year of the Civil War. Starting in the spring of 1864, Power looks at the Army of Northern Virginia through the eyes of the men in the lower ranks as they passed through the ordeals of the Wilderness and Spotsylvania, the retreat over the North and South Anna Rivers, the debilitating siege operations around Petersburg, Jubal Early's abortive Shenandoah Valley campaign, and the army's final defeat and surrender at Appomattox.

Power's portrait of the army as it confidently awaited the spring campaign of 1864 certainly casts doubt on the notion that at the time Gettysburg was looked upon as some sort of turning point. For the men of the Army of Northern Virginia, the turning points in the war came much later. Certainly one of the most important was Early's failed Shenandoah Valley campaign in the summer and fall of 1864. Far from reversing the fortunes of the war, the Valley Campaign resulted in the near disintegration of the Second Corps (Stonewall Jackson's old command), especially after the defeats at Fisher's Hill and Cedar Creek, which many Confederates considered embarrassing at best and utterly disgraceful at worst. Another critical turning point was the infamous "New Year's Dinner" of January 1865. Put back from Christmas to New Year's Day, the dinner – an idea first proposed as a gift to the Army by the Richmond government – turned out to be more of a convincing demonstration that the Confederacy could barely feed itself, let alone its soldiers. When the dinner fizzled, especially after much promising hype by the Richmond newspapers, morale sank to a near nadir.

The book also once again demonstrates the amazing amount of influence Robert E. Lee exercised over his soldiers. Nowhere was this more true than in the potentially explosive
issue of the enlistment of black soldiers in the Army of Northern Virginia. Initial reaction to the idea, as Power demonstrates, was somewhat more mixed than has been previously assumed. There were, however, a large number of men opposed to the idea. Once Lee, however, came out in support of it, up to and including the formation of integrated units, that ended almost any further opposition to the issue. As with so many other things in the Confederacy, however, this was again a case of too little, too late.

Power also has some very humorous material in the book about secret weapons and some other hair-brained schemes that are most enjoyable to read

The book throughout is marked by superb research, done mostly in collections of letters, papers and diaries written at the time. Power very carefully minimized the use of post war memoirs, and I think this greatly contributes to the quality of the book. Lee’s Miserables also has a very pleasant style, and makes for a very good read.

Taken all together, this work clearly merits all the praise it has garnered thus far. It certainly elevates Power into the top rank of historians of the Army of Northern Virginia. Lee’s Miserables is an absolute must read for anyone with an interest in the Civil War in the east.

Lee's Miserables: Life in the Army of Northern Virginia from the
Wilderness to Appomattox, by J. Tracey Power. . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998. 463 pp., illus., maps, index. ISBN: 0-8078-2392-9. $34.95.

Quotation from Chairman

Bonaparte

 

A general must be a charlatan

 

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Reviews

 

The Twilight of a Military Tradition: Italian Aristocracies and European Conflicts, 1560-1800, by Gregory Hanlon. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1998. xii, 371 pp. Maps, tables, graphs, notes, index. $24.00 paper. ISBN: 0-8419-1388-9.

Although Hanlon’s goal, ably met, is to illustrate the declining participation of most of Italy’s aristocratic elite in military affairs during neglected period form the imposition of Spanish domination to the era of the French Revolution the largely, he also presents a ground breaking look at Italian military history in the period, dealing with such relatively neglected conflicts such as the Venetian-Turkish Wars, the Thirty Years War in Italy, and the centuries-long pirate/anti-pirate conflict between Christian and Moslem powers in the Mediterranean.

The author begins by discussing the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, during which Italians played an enormous – often dominant – role in European military life, in both peace and war. The "Spanish" fleet which won the Battle of Lepanto in 1571 was almost entirely Italian, while Italian commanders, seamen, engineers, gunners, and common soldiers were active in many armies and navies, though particularly those of Spain, while Venice was itself one of the premier maritime powers of the world, able to hold its own even against the vast resources of the Ottoman Empire. Then, in a series of chapters, he discusses the changing attitude of Italy’s aristocratic classes towards military service, which led, by the end of the eighteenth century, to a situation in which the Italian states, save for Piedmont, had pretty much become marginal in European calculations, and were easily brushed aside by the forces of Revolutionary France..

Hanlon traces the decline of Italian participation in and interest in the military life of Europe to the imposition of the Pax Hispanica, foreign domination of the peninsula, initially the Spanish Hapsburgs and later their Austrian cousins.

Twilight of a Military Tradition also contains many useful insights into the nature of warfare in the period in question, as well as a good many mini-portraits of some interesting commanders of he day.

The work is rather readable, though marred by occasional clumsy constructions. It is replete with wonderfully interesting statistics, as well as numerous well-thought out tables, maps, graphs ("Italian Nobles in French Service, 1560-1720"), and charts. Although as Hanlon himself admits, The Twilight of a Military Tradition, is only a preliminary survey of the subject, it is worthwhile reading for anyone interested in European military history in the period.

Stalingrad, The Fateful Siege: 1942-1943, by Antony Brevor. New York: Viking, 1998. xvii, 494 pp. Illus, maps, notes, bibliog, index. $35.00. ISBN: 0-670-87095-1.

Although the number of works on Stalingrad is hardly small, virtually all of it has a certain German bias, if only because researchers were largely barred from Soviet archives for nearly 50 years after the battle. Thus, Antony Brevor’s book is a valuable addition to the literature as one of the first studies to make extensive use of Soviet materials.

Thus, while Brevor’s treatment of events from the German side is adequate, it is his coverage of the Soviets that is more important, rooted as it is in often very revealing Soviet documents. There are a great a number of vivid first-hand accounts of the fighting (one an extraordinary description of the view of Stalingrad from the other side of the Volga, which the witness likens to the view of Hades), some interesting insights into the constraints which the ever paranoid presence of the NKVD placed upon military commanders, considerable attention to the enormous suffering of the Soviet troops, as well as of the people of Stalingrad, and some amazing statistics, including the fact that at least 19,000 Soviet soldiers were executed during the battle, which is perhaps the most startling revelation in a book that’s rather full of surprising material.

An extremely valuable book for anyone interested in World War II.

--A.A. Nofi

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The Newsletter can always use short reviews of current books, recent activities of NYMAS members, notices of events likely to be of interest to the membership, and even short articles and anecdotes are always welcome.

Militia Minutia

 

 

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Recent References of Note

 

Historical Dictionary of the United States-Mexican War, by Edward H. Moseley and Paul C. Clark, Jr. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow, 1997. liv, 343 pp. Illus, maps, chron., bibliog. $59.00. ISBN: 0-8108-3334-4.

Notwithstanding the silly "pc-ness" of its title (after all, Mexico was also a "United States"), this is a very helpful reference to individuals, places, and events involved in the Mexican-American War, and provides some useful entries for those unfamiliar with the military practice of the times, such as "Dragoons," though the entries on firearms and artillery would have benefited from tabular presentations. Some soldiers are given more coverage than their role in the war would merit, largely on the strength of their later participation in the American Civil War. There are some unfortunate omissions, such as Mexican general Vicente Filisola, and a couple of concise entries dealing with the organization of the two armies would have been valuable, but the chronology is comprehensive. Valuable for anyone interested in the Mexican War or the Civil War.

 

Historical Dictionary of the United States Marine Corps, by Harry A. Gailey. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow, 1998. xxviii, 252 pp. Maps, chron, bibliog. $50.00. ISBN: 0-8108-3401-4.

A handy, but by no means comprehensive dictionary reference to the Marine Corps, omitting such famous Marines as Levi Twiggs, Dan Daley, and Bill Lee, while some entries contain genuine howlers, such as "Although some fighting had begun before, the [American] rebellion against British rule officially began on July 4, 1776." Helpful for anyone interested in the history of the corps, if used with caution.

 

 

Special Book Offer to NYMAS Members!

 

By arrangement with Combined Publishing, the three hundred page hard cover volume James Longstreet: The Man, the Soldier, the Controversy, edited by Richard L. DiNardo and Albert A. Nofi, embodying the proceedings of the 1993 NYMAS Military History Conference, regularly $29.95, is now available to NYMAS members at the reduced price of $25.00, plus $3.00 shipping and handling, from:

Combined Publishing

475 West Elm St.

Conshohocken, PA, 19425

Make checks payable to "Combined Publishing," and be sure to identify yourself as a member of NYMAS.

All proceeds from the sale of James Longstreet go to benefit the Longstreet Memorial Fund and NYMAS.

 

 

 

A Brace of Valuable Recent Biographies

 

The Lion’s Pride: Theodore Roosevelt and His Family in Peace and War, by Edward J. Renehan, Jr., New York: Oxford, 1998. xii, 242 pp. Illus, notes, bibliog, index. $30.00. ISBN: 0-19-512719-6.

A collective biographical treatment of Theodore Roosevelt and his numerous offspring, with a focus on the military careers of the men in the clan. By the death of the president in 1919, not only had "TR" himself seen military service, but so too had his four sons, all in combat, during which one of them, Quentin, a fighter pilot, was killed in action, while one of his daughters and a daughter-in-law had served overseas as volunteer nurses overseas.

Based heavily on materials from the Roosevelt family archives, and the book often contains many interesting insights into the relationship between the "Lion" and his "Pride." A useful work, though with some shortcomings. The author omits treatment of Roosevelt’s service in the New York National Guard in the early 1880s, during which he rose to company commander. In addition, although he does provide some coverage of the World War II careers of Theodore Jr., Arch, and Kermit, and of the family history since the war, more would have been of value.

 

A Hero to His Fighting Men: Nelson A. Miles, 1839-1925, by Peter R. DeMontravel. Kent, Oh.: Kent State University Press, 1998. x, 463 pp. Illus, maps, notes, bibliog, index. $45.00. ISBN: 0-87338-594-2.

A military biography of one of the most prominent American soldiers of the late nineteenth century. Interestingly, the author gives relatively little coverage to Miles’ Civil War experiences, which might surprise some readers, but is legitimate in terms of the man’s long years of military service, and his far greater importance in terms of the Indian Wars, during which he proved one of the most effective Indian fighters and at the same time a stout friend of the Native Americans, and the Spanish-American War, with a particular focus on the campaign in Puerto Rico, one of the best demonstrations of both Miles’ enormous administrative abilities and his skill as a commander.

There are some excellent battle pieces, a lot of useful insights into the "Indian Fighting Army," and much interesting personal information.

 

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The Strange Case of the Captain's Skivvies

 

One morning in 1943, Capt. Harold L. Meadows of the escort carrier Natoma Bay, then operating in the South Pacific in support of operations against Japanese forces, called up the ship's "GSO" (General Services Officer – i.e., the laundry officer).

When the laundry officer answered, the Captain roared, "Who put the itching powder in my underwear?"

The startled officer expressed doubts that anyone would have the temerity to do so, but the Captain emphasized that such was indeed the case, and ordered the man to apprehend the malefactor immediately.

The GSO promptly headed for the ship's laundry. Lining up the men, he demanded, "Who put the itching powder in the Captain's underwear?"

The assembled laundrymen were silent. Then, just as the officer was about to repeat his question, a man in the rear of the assembled laundry workers spoke up, "Do you suppose that's where the fiberglass curtain went?"

Everyone looked at the man in surprise. There was a missing curtain, one of many which had been supplied by the Navy in lieu of more expensive doors. The curtain had become mixed up with the regular laundry. Unfortunately, it was not supposed to be washed using the same water temperature, soap, and bleach used for the men's cottons. As a result it had disintegrated, leaving behind a fine, abrasive dust, which was now all over not just the Captain's underwear, but that of the entire crew: The Captain had just had the misfortune to have his laundry delivered before anyone else's.

It took two additional washings before the men of Natoma Bay were able to rid themselves of the itchy fiberglass in their skivvies.

 

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Short Rounds: Some Recent Books of Interest

 

Kaigun: Strategy, Tactics, and Technology in the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1887-1941, by David C. Evans and Mark R. Peatie. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1997. xxv, 661 pp. Illus, maps, diagr, plans, graphs, tables, append, notes, bibliog., index. $49.95. ISBN: 0-87021-192-7.

A very detailed technical history of the Imperial Navy, from its inception to the Pearl Harbor. Taking an essentially chronological approach, the authors mix organizational and operational history, with chapters that deal with on tactical development, shipbuilding policies, and technological progress. They cover a lot of ground economically, but effectively, even managing to provide discussions of manpower policies, logistical problems, and amphibious warfare doctrine, while fitting everything within the framework of the larger geopolitical and strategic issues with which the Imperial Navy had to cope. Recommended for anyone interested in the Pacific War or Japanese military history.

 

The Mexican National Army, 1822-1852, by William A. DePalo, Jr. College Station, Tx.,: Texas A&M University Press, 1997. xi, 280 pp. Maps, append, notes, glossary, bibliog, index. $39.95. ISBN: 0-89096-744-X.

An examination of the Mexican Army, from its roots in the late colonial and revolutionary periods through the third decade of Mexico’s independence. Although very good, The Mexican National Army essentially focuses on the political and social sides of the army, rather than on matters of defense policy, organization, equipment, doctrine, and recruiting. With this limitation in mind, the work still provides many useful insights into the disastrous failure of the army during the war with the United States in 1846-1848. Very useful for anyone interested in the Mexican-American War.

 

Reporting Vietnam: Media and Military at War, by William M. Hammond. Lawrence, Ks.: University Press of Kansas, 1998. xii, 362 pp. Illus, maps, notes, bibliog, index. $34.95. ISBN: 0-7006-0911-3.

A very even-handed look at the contentious question of media-military relations during the Vietnam War. Hammond ties the increasingly acrimonious relationship between the media and the military into the political background, pointing out the difficulties created by the shifting political objectives which the Armed Forces were required to support. At times the work is extremely insightful, as in his treatment of the famous Eddie Adams photo of Brig. Gen. Nguyen Ngoc Loan executing a Viet Cong prisoner. Reporting Vietnam is likely to be of value to anyone interested in the Vietnam War and in media-military relations in general. Oddly, whomsoever wrote the flyleaf blurb seems not to have read the book.

 

The Washington Conference, 1921-22: Naval Rivalry, East Asian Stability, and the Road to Pearl Harbor, edited by Erik Goldstein and John Maurer. London: Frank Cass, 1994. viii, 319 pp. Tables, notes, bibliog, index. No price given. ISBN: 0-7146-4559-1.

Ten scholars – including former NYMAS President Brian R. Sullivan – examine the Washington Naval Disarmament Conference of 1921-1922 from a variety of perspectives. The essays, which are generally well reasoned, not only deal with the subject in terms of the major players, Britain, Japan, and the US, but also discuss the role of France, Italy, and China. Of interest to students of naval history, of the Second World War, and of peace studies.

 

Code to Victory: Coming of Age in World War II, by Arnold C. Franco as told to Paula Aselin Spellman. Manhattan, Ks.: Sunflower University Press, 1998.

The memoirs of a young Jewish-American soldier who served in a forward cryptanalysis detachment from D-Day to VE-Day. Combining a biographical account with an interesting look at how codebreakers operated in the field and an outline history of the war as Franco saw it, with many often amusing anecdotes. A good soldier’s story.

 

The Roman Army at War, 100 B.C.-A.D. 200, by Adrian Keith Goldsworthy. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1998. xiv, 311 pp. Illus, maps, tables, append, notes, bibliog, index. $19.95 paper. ISBN: 0-19-815090-3.

A surprisingly effective attempt to look at the life and experiences of the Roman soldier using the approach John Keegan pioneered in The Face of Battle. Of course the resources are less abundant, no Roman soldier’s memoirs having come down to us. Nevertheless, Goldsworth had plundered the materials that are available with great effectiveness, citing not only available ancient works on military matters, but also letters, inscriptions, and even poems, producing a work far better documents than Keegan’s. Despite its weighty scholarship, The Roman Army at War is eminently readable. Valuable for anyone interested in ancient warfare or the life of the common soldier.

 

Studies in British Military Thought: Debates with Fuller & Liddell Hart, by Brian Holden Reid. Lincoln, Nb.: University of Nebraska Press, 1998. xiii, 287 pp. Notes, bibliog, index. $45.00. ISBN: 0-8032-3927-0.

In a dozen essays the author looks at the ideas of the two principal British military thinkers of the inter-war period, J.F.C. Fuller and B.H. Liddell Hart. The perspectives are varied, including, for example, contrasts between the two men’s views on tactics, the effect their differing personalities had on their work, and, perhaps most valuably, what they got right and they got wrong, matters about which they often equivocated in the post-war period. Useful for anyone interested in the Second World War.

 

All the Pasha’s Men: Mehmet Ali, His Army, and the Making of Modern Egypt, by Khaled Fahmy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. xviii, 334 pp. Illus, notes, bibliog, index. $59.95. ISBN: 0-521-47535-X.

A history of one the Egyptian Army in the first half of the nineteenth century, under the domination of Mehmet Ali. Contrary to Egyptian nationalists, Fahmy views Mehmet Ali’s efforts as largely driven by personal ambition, rather than a desire to create a modern nation-state. While there is some treatment of operations, the book is essentially a political and social history, rather than an operational one. The author’s unusual writing style may bother some, but it’s a useful work for anyone interested in the military history of the Middle East.

 

1999 Military History Conference

 

Deceit in Defeat: Failed and Secret Red Army Offensives in World War II

Col. David Glantz

 

The Greatest Fraud in the History of the Marine Corps

 

 

Henry B. Hallowell enlisted in the Marine Corps on May 28,1860. The following October he was assigned to the Marine Guard aboard the USS Richmond, which shortly departed for the Mediterranean. When the Civil War broke out, the ship was called back to the U.S., whereupon Hallowell promptly deserted.

On July 21, 1861, Hallowell enlisted in the 28th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, and was promoted to first sergeant of Company K three days later. In February 1862, however, he was found to be a deserter from the Marine Corps and was arrested. Under normal circumstances he would have been severely punished. But the Civil War created an enormous demand for Marines, and Hallowell escaped the usual penalties, being reenlisted and assigned to the Marine Guard aboard the USS Flag.

On October 27, 1862, Flag ran down and captured the blockade runner Anglia in Bull's Bay, South Carolina. Hallowell was assigned to the prize crew aboard Anglia, which took the ship to New York, where he jumped ship.

For the next year and a half, Hallowell laid low, but in May, 1864, he was again arrested. Surprisingly, he suffered only a reduction in rank, and was again assigned to duty, this time aboard the USS Juniata. During the First Battle for Fort Fisher, in December of that year, Hallowell served as one of the ship’s gunners, while during the second battle, he went ashore with the 400-man Marine Battalion, to take part in the January 15, 1865 assault on the works.

Hallowell was discharged from the service on September 28, 1865, and, for the next several decades was just another veteran making his way in the world. Then, in 1917, he was interviewed by John Leonard and Fred Chitty, authors of The Story of the United States Marines. They included Hallowell's story of the attack on Fort Fisher assault in their book.

The publication of the book, and the popularity that the Marines gained during World War I, apparently prompted Hallowell to concoct a new life for himself. Shortly after the war he purchased a set of full dress blues, attached first sergeant's stripes and fifteen hash marks to the sleeves, and thus instantly transformed himself from chronic deserter to career Marine. In 1921, he showed up at the San Diego recruiting office and convinced all and sundry that he had been on active duty for sixty-one years. His story was picked up by the Mare Island Navy Yard newspaper Peepsight.

For the next seven years, Hallowell traveled around the country and was welcomed at every Marine post. Finding receptive audiences for his tall tales at every stop, he was the delight of the Corps. Everyone seemed charmed by this salty old sea-soldier. Everyone but Major F. E. Fegan, the officer in charge of Marine recruiting.

In 1927 Fegan personally looked into Hallowell's service record, and found the man to be a fraud. He promptly issued orders that Hallowell not be mentioned in Marine publications and banned him from all posts. Following Fegan's edict, Hallowell vanished into obscurity. But his picture, replete with hash marks from wrist to shoulder, perpetuates the myth of him having been the longest serving Marine in the history of the Corps. That image has appeared in several publications over the years, including Leatherneck in 1958 and again in 1966, as well as a recent work on American military uniforms and decorations.

 

 

Newsletter

Mailing Address

 

Remember, all submissions for The Newsletter should be sent directly to the editor.

 

Surface mail:

 

A. A. Nofi

NYMAS

3506 Duval St.

Austin, TX, 78705-1716

 

Email:

anofi@aol.com

 

 

 

The Civil War Bookshelf

 

Although Issue 9 of The Newsletter was wholly devoted to the Civil War, the flow of materials remains unceasing

 

The Legacy of the Civil War, by Robert Penn Warren, introduction by Howard Jones. Lincoln, Nb.: University of Nebraska, 1998. xvii, 109 pp. $8.00 paper. ISBN: 0-8032-9801-3

Originally published in 1961, Robert Penn Warren’s essay is a thoughtful look at the nature of the war and its impact on American society. Although now nearly 40 years old, it remains surprisingly insightful, and is worth reading, for anyone interested in American History, not merely by those interested in the Civil War.

 

Conquer or Die! The 39th New York Volunteer Infantry: Garibaldi Guard, a Military History, by John M. Pellicano. Flushing, N.Y.: John M. Pellicano, 1996. 260 pp. Illus, maps, tables, notes, bibliog, index. $14.95 paper. ISBN: 0-9656276-0-8.

In contrast to Michael Bacarella’s 1996 Lincoln’s Foreign Legion, which focused on the regiment’s extraordinary ethnic diversity, John Pellicano’s Conquer or Die! is an operational history of the 39th New York, a regiment which saw much hard service, though little glory. An interesting addition to the literature of the Civil War.

 

Into the Fight: Picektt’s Charge at Gettysburg, by John Michael Priest. Shippensburg, Pa.: White Mane, 1998. xii, 278 pp. Illus, maps, tables, append, notes, bibliog, index. $34.95. ISBN: 1-57249-138-8.

A very detailed narrative treatment of the famed Confederate attack at Gettysburg on July 3, 1863. As such, it complements rather than competes with Carol Reardon’s recent work on the charge, which approaches the subject differently. Certainly Priest’s work will supplant George R. Stewart’s older work on the subject.

 

Struggle for the Shenandoah: Essays on the 1864 Valley Campaign, edited by Gary W. Gallagher. Kent, Oh.: Kent State University Press, 1991. x, 135 pp. Maps, Illus, maps, notes, bibliog, index. $14.00 paper. ISBN: 0-87338-430-X.

Five essays examine one of the most crucial campaigns in the Civil War. The essays are rather uneven. One, a general survey by Gallagher himself is quite coherent and well reasoned, but of the others three are rather "Confederate" in perspective, and one seems intent on blaming anyone but Jubal Early for Confederate command failures.

 

Six Armies in Tennessee: The Chickamauga and Chattanooga Campaigns, by Steven E. Woodworth. Lincoln, Nb.: University of Nebraska Press, 1998. xvii, 257 pp. Illus, maps, notes, bibliog, index. $29.95. ISBN: 0-8032-4778-8.

Although Six Armies in Tennessee does not take any radically innovative approach to these two campaigns in 1863, it presents a substantial and understandable account of some often very confusing operations. There are also a number of very good word pictures and some wonderful anecdotes. Worth reading for anyone interested in the Civil War.

 

Battle of Antietam: The Official History by the Antietam Battlefield Board, by George R. Large and Joe A. Swisher. Shippensburg, Pa.: Burd Street Press, 1998. xii, 224 pp. Illus, maps, tables, append, bibliog, index. $14.95 paper. ISBN: 1-57249-102-7

An interesting, though not entirely successful effort to recount the events of the Battle of Antietam by using short narrative synopses to link together the text of the various monuments and markers on the battlefield. While this give s some notion of the chronological sequence of events, there is a notable lack of discussion of the rational for the reasons that these events took place in the way that they did.

 

The Best School: West Point, 1833-1866, by James L. Morrison, Jr. Kent, Oh.: Kent State University Press, 1998. xii, 255 pp. Illus, tables, append, notes, bibliog, index. $18.00. ISBN: 0-87338-612-4.

A study of the military academy during the years when it produced most of the principal commanders in the Civil War, each chapter of The Best School looks at West Point from a different perspective, such as "The Corps of Cadets: Socioeconomic Composition and the Military Environment" and "The Academic Environment, 1833-1854," wrapping it all up with "West Point and the Civil War," to which is added a plethora of appendices on everything from father’s occupation to the causes of academic failure. Useful.

 

NYMAS Spring 1999 Schedule

 

Lectures begin at 7:00 p.m., at the CUNY Graduate Center, 33 West 42nd St, N.Y. Consult with Security for the room.

 

 

 

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